NOx and Particulate Real Drive Emissions (RDE)

This course, which is based on our long standing CPD course on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions, was completely revised in 2016 to include real-world driving emissions and the development of European Real Drive Emissions (RDE) legislation and the reasons for modern SI and Diesel vehicles to have higher emissions in real world congested traffic than they do on legislated test cycles. This leads to worse air quality in cities. The technology of SI and Diesel engines for low CO2 is converging and SI engines have significant particulate emissions relative to modern diesels with particulate filters. This is leading to the requirement for Gasoline Particulate Filter for gasoline direct injection engines (GDI), but this is likely to be extended to PFI gasoline in the future as the use of rich mixtures in transient acceleration leads to the generation of soot.

The Real Drive Emissions additions to the course are based on the extensive experience in this area of BOSMAL and Prof. Gordon E. Andrews, both of whom have published on RDE for over 12 years and been researching in this area
for 20 years. This experience includes both SI and Diesel passenger car and truck RDE. Prof. David Kittelson also has considerable experience in on-road emissions measurements with vehicles measuring their own exhausts and for chase vehicles and his work has concentrated on particulate and particle size emissions. The issue of whether current EU proposals for RDE testing address the issue of poor air quality in cities will be discussed, as such RDE testing must include congested traffic and cold start if they are to be realistic. Currently the proposals do not address these issues.

The course covers the sources of emissions of CO, HC, NOx and PM in SI and diesel engines and on the design and
operation of catalytic and particulate emissions reduction systems for both vehicles. The latest technology for emissions reduction from SI and diesel engines is reviewed and the consequences for NOx, CO, HC and PM emissions of CO2 legislation that is making fuel consumption the primary driver in engine development at present. Engine calibration methodology that can reduce fuel consumption at the expense of NOx and PM engine out emissions is reviewed, which leads to RDE problems if the aftertreatment system for NOx and PM emissions cannot cope with the more transient demands of RDE in congested traffic with longer cold starts.


Day 1: Real-world driving for SI and diesel vehicles, fuel economy and emissions

  • Introduction to the environmental problems of vehicle emissions incuding GHGs and real world driving
  • Remaining compliant: an insight on changing regulations and the current status of RDE legislation
  • Real world driving in congested traffic: implications for roadside air quality
  • Practicality, test success and efficiency challenges of operating a real driving emissions test service
  • Real world driving emissions with comparision with NEDC and WLTC test cycles for diesel and SI vehicles, including cold start RDE legislation compliance
  • Efficient powertrain development for real drive emissions
  • Cold start PM and PN emissions from PFI and GDI gasoline vehicles

Day 2: AM - Mainly HDD and bus real drive emissions

  • Engine exhaust particles in the atmosphere. Measurement of HDD vehicle exhausts on the highway using a mobile emissions laboratory
  • HDD SCR performance in real world driving: evidence of catalyst de-light during freewheeling
  • Real world NOx emissions from state of the art diesel buses. Recalibration of the bus engines to reduce the RDE emissions to those similar to the legislated test cycle
  • Real driving emissions using fast response analysers
  • Euro 3 diesel car in real world congested traffic: major NOx problem and a significant cause of high road NO2. Evidence of DOC de-light in congested traffic

PM - Fundamentals of diesel and SI engines

  • Diesel and SI engine thermodynamics and turbocharging
  • Diesel ignition delay and apparent ignition delay in SI engines
  • The Nissan MK concept with long ignition delay using EGR
  • Diesel and SI engine processes that influence particulate formation
  • Factors influencing carbon formation in diesel and SI engines

Day 3: Fundamentals of SI and diesel gaseous emissions

  • CO and HC emissions from SI and Diesel Engines
  • NOx formation and control in SI and diesel engines
  • EGR for NOx control in SI and diesel engines
  • Ultrafine and nanoparticles in diesel, SI and GDI engines
  • The effects of vehicle technology on CO2 emissions across a range of different drive cycles
  • Introduction to emission control by catalysts
  • Three-way catalyst (TWC) substrate development

Day 4: Particulate and NOx after treatment with minimum CO2 penalty

  • Three-way catalysts
  • Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs)
  • Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) - overview
  • The regeneration of particulate filter systems
  • Particulate trap substrates for GDI engines - gasoline particulate filters (GPF)
  • NOx adsorber catalysts
  • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
  • SNCR: SCR - urea mixing and control: influence on PM
  • Integrated systems

Day 5: Diesel fuel injection and engine design trends for low NOx, PM and CO2 emissions

  • Common rail fuel injection systems
  • Turbocharging for low emission heavy duty diesels
  • Lube oil review for SI and diesel emissions
  • Cold start and implication for real world emissions in urban driving
  • Review of RCCI and HCCI


Who should attend?

The course is relevant to vehicle manufacturers, engine consultancies and emissions control R&D with an interest in RDE and engine and emissions control technology for Euro 6 and beyond as well as for technology for future CO2 emissions reduction. The course is also relevant to those who need to understand real world traffic emissions from an air quality viewpoint and to those involved in emissions regulation formulation and enforcement.

"Presents the latest state of the art technology and research on the relevant topic. Very useful and relevant from the current automotive industry concerns" JCB Power Systems

"Good to learn about theory and same theoretical trends" Nissan Technical Centre

"A very good course with great speakers" Neste Oil

This course is in association with the Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers, which is devoted to the advancement of diesel and gas engines, gas turbines, and related products and technology.

The Energy Institute has approved Leeds University – Faculty of Engineering – as an Approved Training Provider.

Full five days: £1800

Any one day: £450

Fees include:

  • cost of tuition
  • course materials
  • lunches
  • light refreshments
  • course dinner.

Weetwood Hall Conference Centre and Hotel
Otley Road
LS16 5PS


The course will take place at the Weetwood Hall Hotel and Conference Centre, which is situated to the north of Leeds at the junction of the A660 Leeds - Skipton road and the A6120 Outer Ring Road.

The hotel accommodation preferential rates have now expired, any accommodation requests should be made direct with the hotel and will be subject to availability and rates.​​


+ 44 (0)113 343 8104

CPD Conference and Events Unit
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Leeds,